Official seal of
the now defunct Information Awareness Office -- a
U.S. agency which developed technologies for mass
Information Awareness Office seal
(motto: lat. scientia est potentia – knowledge is
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
is an agency of the United States Department of Defense
responsible for the development of new technologies for use by
the military. DARPA has been responsible for funding the
development of many technologies which have had a major effect
on the world, including computer networking, as well as NLS,
which was both the first hypertext system, and an important
precursor to the contemporary ubiquitous graphical user
DARPA began as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
created in 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower for the
purpose of forming and executing research and development
projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science and
able to reach far beyond immediate military requirements. The
administration was responding to the Soviet launching of Sputnik
1 in 1957, and ARPA's mission was to ensure U.S. military
technology be more sophisticated than that of the nation's
potential enemies. From DARPA's own introduction.
DARPA’s original mission, established in 1958, was to prevent
technological surprise like the launch of Sputnik, which
signaled that the Soviets had beaten the U.S. into space. The
mission statement has evolved over time. Today, DARPA’s mission
is still to prevent technological surprise to the US, but also
to create technological surprise for our enemies.
ARPA, was renamed to "DARPA" (for Defense) in March 1972, then
renamed "ARPA" in February 1993, and then renamed "DARPA" again
in March 1996.
DARPA is independent from other more conventional military
research and development and reports directly to senior
Department of Defense management. DARPA has around 240 personnel
(about 140 technical) directly managing a $2.8 billion budget.
These figures are "on average" since DARPA focuses on short-term
(two to four year) projects run by small, purpose-built teams.
The Information Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in January
2002 to bring together several DARPA projects focused on
applying surveillance and information technology to track and
monitor terrorists and other asymmetric threats to U.S. national
security, by achieving Total Information Awareness (TIA).
This was achieved by creating enormous computer databases to
gather and store the personal information of everyone in the
United States, including personal e-mails, social networks,
credit card records, phone calls, medical records, and numerous
other sources, without any requirement for a search warrant.
This information was then analyzed to look for suspicious
activities, connections between individuals, and "threats".
Additionally, the program included funding for biometric
surveillance technologies that could identify and track
individuals using surveillance cameras, and other methods.
Following public criticism that the development and deployment
of this technology could potentially lead to a mass surveillance
system, the IAO was defunded by Congress in 2003. However,
several IAO projects continued to be funded, and merely run
under different names.
The Information Processing Techniques Office
is part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the
United States Department of Defense whose stated mission is:
[To] create a new generation of computational
and information systems that possess capabilities far beyond
those of current systems. These cognitive systems - systems that
know what they're doing:
will be able to reason, using substantial
amounts of appropriately represented knowledge;
will learn from their experiences and
improve their performance over time;
will be capable of explaining themselves and
taking naturally expressed direction from humans;
will be aware of themselves and able to
reflect on their own behavior;
will be able to respond robustly to
surprises, in a very general way.
The vast majority of computer surveillance
involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet. In
the United States for example, under the Communications
Assistance For Law Enforcement Act, all phone calls and
broadband Internet traffic (emails, web traffic, instant
messaging, etc.) are required to be available for unimpeded
real-time monitoring by Federal law enforcement agencies.
There is far too much data on the Internet for human
investigators to manually search through all of it. So automated
Internet surveillance computers sift through the vast amount of
intercepted Internet traffic and identify and report to human
investigators traffic considered interesting by using certain
"trigger" words or phrases, visiting certain types of web sites,
or communicating via email or chat with suspicious individuals
or groups. Billions of dollars per year are spent, by agencies
such as the Information Awareness Office, NSA, and the FBI, to
develop, purchase, implement, and operate systems such as
Carnivore, NarusInsight, and ECHELON to intercept and analyze
all of this data, and extract only the information which is
useful to law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
Computers can be a surveillance target because of the personal
data stored on them. If someone is able to install software,
such as the FBI's Magic Lantern and CIPAV, on a computer system,
they can easily gain unauthorized access to this data. Such
software could be installed physically or remotely. Another form
of computer surveillance, known as van Eck phreaking, involves
reading electromagnetic emanations from computing devices in
order to extract data from them at distances of hundreds of
meters. The NSA runs a database known as "Pinwale", which stores
and indexes large numbers of emails of both American citizens
Telephones: Lawful Interception
The official and unofficial tapping of telephone
lines is widespread. In the United States for instance, the
Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act (CALEA)
requires that all telephone and VoIP communications be available
for real-time wiretapping by Federal law enforcement and
intelligence agencies. Two major telecommunications companies in
the U.S.—AT&T Inc. and Verizon—have contracts with the FBI,
requiring them to keep their phone call records easily
searchable and accessible for Federal agencies, in return for
$1.8 million per year. Between 2003 and 2005, the FBI sent out
more than 140,000 "National Security Letters" ordering phone
companies to hand over information about their customers'
calling and Internet histories. About half of these letters
requested information on U.S. citizens.
Human agents are not required to monitor most calls.
Speech-to-text software creates machine-readable text from
intercepted audio, which is then processed by automated
call-analysis programs, such as those developed by agencies such
as the Information Awareness Office, or companies such as Verint,
and Narus, which search for certain words or phrases, to decide
whether to dedicate a human agent to the call.
Law enforcement and intelligence services in the United Kingdom
and the United States possess technology to activate the
microphones in cell phones remotely, by accessing phones'
diagnostic or maintenance features in order to listen to
conversations that take place near the person who holds the
Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect
location data. The geographical location of a mobile phone (and
thus the person carrying it) can be determined easily even when
the phone is not being used, using a technique known as
multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a
signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell
towers near the owner of the phone. The legality of such
techniques has been questioned in the United States, in
particular whether a court warrant is required.Records for one
carrier alone (Sprint), showed that in a given year federal law
enforcement agencies requested customer location data 8 million
Cameras: Closed-Circuit Television
A surveillance camera in Cairns, Queensland
Surveillance cameras such as these are installed by the millions
in many countries, and are nowadays monitored by automated
computer programs instead of humans. Surveillance cameras are
video cameras used for the purpose of observing an area. They
are often connected to a recording device or IP network, and may
be watched by a security guard or law enforcement officer.
Cameras and recording equipment used to be relatively expensive
and required human personnel to monitor camera footage, but
analysis of footage has been made easier by automated software
that organizes digital video footage into a searchable database,
and by video analysis software (such as VIRAT and Human ID). The
amount of footage is also drastically reduced by motion sensors
which only record when motion is detected. With cheaper
production techniques, surveillance cameras are simple and
inexpensive enough to be used in home security systems, and for
In the United States, the Department of Homeland Security awards
billions of dollars per year in Homeland Security grants for
local, state, and federal agencies to install modern video
surveillance equipment. For example, the city of Chicago,
Illinois, recently used a $5.1 million Homeland Security grant
to install an additional 250 surveillance cameras, and connect
them to a centralized monitoring center, along with its
preexisting network of over 2000 cameras, in a program known as
Operation Virtual Shield. Speaking in 2009, Chicago Mayor
Richard Daley announced that Chicago would have a surveillance
camera on every street corner by the year 2016.
As part of China's Golden Shield Project, several U.S.
corporations, including IBM, General Electric, and Honeywell,
have been working closely with the Chinese government to install
millions of surveillance cameras throughout China, along with
advanced video analytics and facial recognition software, which
will identify and track individuals everywhere they go. They
will be connected to a centralized database and monitoring
station, which will, upon completion of the project, contain a
picture of the face of every person in China: over 1.3 billion
people. Lin Jiang Huai, the head of China's "Information
Security Technology" office (which is in charge of the project),
credits the surveillance systems in the United States and the
U.K. as the inspiration for what he is doing with the Golden
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is funding
a research project called Combat Zones That See that will link
up cameras across a city to a centralized monitoring station,
identify and track individuals and vehicles as they move through
the city, and report "suspicious" activity (such as waving arms,
looking side-to-side, standing in a group, etc.).
At Super Bowl XXXV in January 2001, police in Tampa, Florida,
used Identix’s facial recognition software, FaceIt, to scan the
crowd for potential criminals and terrorists in attendance at
the event (it found 19 people with pending arrest warrants).
Governments ofteninitially claim that cameras are meant to be
used for traffic control, but many of them end up using them for
general surveillance. For example, Washington, D.C. had 5,000
"traffic" cameras installed under this premise, and then after
they were all in place, networked them all together and then
granted access to the Metropolitan Police Department, so they
could perform "day-to-day monitoring".
The development of centralized networks of CCTV
cameras watching public areas – linked to computer databases of
people's pictures and identity (biometric data), able to track
people's movements throughout the city, and identify whom they
have been with – has been argued by some to present a risk to
civil liberties. Trapwire is an example of such a network.
Social network analysis (SNA) is the methodical
analysis of social networks. Social network analysis
views social relationships in terms of network
theory, consisting of nodes (representing individual
actors within the network) and ties (which represent
relationships between the individuals, such as
friendship, kinship, organizational position, sexual
relationships, etc.) These networks are often
depicted in a social network diagram, where nodes
are represented as points and ties are represented
Social network analysis enables governments to
gather detailed information about peoples' friends, family, and
other contacts. Since much of this information is voluntarily
made public by the users themselves, it is often consider to be
a form of open-source intelligence. One common form of
surveillance is to create maps of social networks based on data
from social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter
as well as from traffic analysis information from phone call
records such as those in the NSA call database, and others.
These social network "maps" are then data mined to extract
useful information such as personal interests, friendships &
affiliations, wants, beliefs, thoughts, and activities.
Many U.S. government agencies such as the Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the National Security Agency (NSA),
and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are investing
heavily in research involving social network analysis. The
intelligence community believes that the biggest threat to U.S.
power comes from decentralized, leaderless, geographically
dispersed groups of terrorists, subversives, extremists, and
dissidents. These types of threats are most easily countered by
finding important nodes in the network, and removing them. To do
this requires a detailed map of the network.
Jason Ethier of Northeastern University, in his study of modern
social network analysis, said the following of the Scalable
Social Network Analysis Program developed by the Information
"The purpose of the SSNA algorithms program is to extend
techniques of social network analysis to assist with
distinguishing potential terrorist cells from legitimate groups
of people.... In order to be successful SSNA will require
information on the social interactions of the majority of people
around the globe. Since the Defense Department cannot easily
distinguish between peaceful citizens and terrorists, it will be
necessary for them to gather data on innocent civilians as well
as on potential terrorists." - Jason Ethier
AT&T developed a programming language called
"Hancock", which is able to sift through enormous databases of
phone call and Internet traffic records, such as the NSA call
database, and extract "communities of interest"—groups of people
who call each other regularly, or groups that regularly visit
certain sites on the Internet. AT&T originally built the system
to develop "marketing leads", but the FBI has regularly
requested such information from phone companies such as AT&T
without a warrant, and after using the data stores all
information received in its own databases, regardless of whether
or not the information was ever useful in an investigation.
Some people believe that the use of social networking sites is a
form of "participatory surveillance", where users of these sites
are essentially performing surveillance on themselves, putting
detailed personal information on public websites where it can be
viewed by corporations and governments. About 20% of employers
have reported using social networking sites to collect personal
data on prospective or current employees.
Fingerprints being scanned as part of the
US-VISIT program Biometrics
Biometric surveillance is any technology that measures and
analyzes human physical and/or behavioral characteristics for
authentication, identification, or screening purposes. Examples
of physical characteristics include fingerprints, DNA, and
facial patterns. Examples of mostly behavioral characteristics
include gait (a person's manner of walking) or voice.
Facial recognition is the use of the unique configuration of a
person's facial features to accurately identify them, usually
from surveillance video. Both the Department of Homeland
Security and DARPA are heavily funding research into facial
recognition systems. The Information Processing Technology
Office, ran a program known as Human Identification at a
Distance which developed technologies that are capable of
identifying a person at up to 500 ft by their facial features.
Another form of behavioral biometrics, based on affective
computing, involves computers recognizing a person's emotional
state based on an analysis of their facial expressions, how fast
they are talking, the tone and pitch of their voice, their
posture, and other behavioral traits. This might be used for
instance to see if a person is acting "suspicious" (looking
around furtively, "tense" or "angry" facial expressions, waving
A more recent development is DNA fingerprinting, which looks at
some of the major markers in the body's DNA to produce a match.
The FBI is spending $1 billion to build a new biometric
database, which will store DNA, facial recognition data,
iris/retina (eye) data, fingerprints, palm prints, and other
biometric data of people living in the United States. The
computers running the database are contained in an underground
facility about the size of two American football fields.
The Los Angeles Police Department is installing automated facial
recognition and license plate recognition devices in its squad
cars, and providing handheld face scanners, which officers will
use to identify people while on patrol.
Facial thermographs are in development, which allow machines to
identify certain emotions in people such as fear or stress, by
measuring the temperature generated by blood flow to different
parts of their face. Law enforcement officers believe that this
has potential for them to identify when a suspect is nervous,
which might indicate that they are hiding something, lying, or
worried about something.
Aerial surveillance is the gathering of
surveillance, usually visual imagery or video, from an airborne
vehicle—such as an unmanned aerial vehicle, helicopter, or spy
plane. Military surveillance aircraft use a range of sensors
(e.g. radar) to monitor the battlefield.
Digital imaging technology, miniaturized computers, and numerous
other technological advances over the past decade have
contributed to rapid advances in aerial surveillance hardware
such as micro-aerial vehicles, forward-looking infrared, and
high-resolution imagery capable of identifying objects at
extremely long distances. For instance, the MQ-9 Reaper, a U.S.
drone plane used for domestic operations by the Department of
Homeland Security, carries cameras that are capable of
identifying an object the size of a milk carton from altitudes
of 60,000 feet, and has forward-looking infrared devices that
can detect the heat from a human body at distances of up to 60
kilometers. In an earlier instance of commercial aerial
surveillance, the Killington Mountain ski resort hired 'eye in
the sky' aerial photography of its competitors' parking lots to
judge the success of its marketing initiatives as it developed
starting in the 1950s.
Program Concept Drawing
From official IPTO (DARPA) official website.
Click for Larger Image
The United States Department of Homeland
Security is in the process of testing UAVs to patrol the skies
over the United States for the purposes of critical
infrastructure protection, border patrol, "transit monitoring",
and general surveillance of the U.S. population. Miami-Dade
police department ran tests with a vertical take-off and landing
UAV from Honeywell, which is planned to be used in SWAT
operations. Houston's police department has been testing
fixed-wing UAVs for use in "traffic control".
The United Kingdom, as well, is working on plans to build up a
fleet of surveillance UAVs ranging from micro-aerial vehicles to
full-size drones, to be used by police forces throughout the
In addition to their surveillance capabilities, MAVs are capable
of carrying tasers for "crowd control", or weapons for killing
Programs such as the Heterogenous Aerial Reconnaissance Team
program developed by DARPA have automated much of the aerial
surveillance process. They have developed systems consisting of
large teams drone planes that pilot themselves, automatically
decide who is "suspicious" and how to go about monitoring them,
coordinate their activities with other drones nearby, and notify
human operators if something suspicious is occurring. This
greatly increases the amount of area that can be continuously
monitored, while reducing the number of human operators
required. Thus a swarm of automated, self-directing drones can
automatically patrol a city and track suspicious individuals,
reporting their activities back to a centralized monitoring
Mining and Profiling
Data mining is the application of statistical
techniques and programmatic algorithms to discover previously
unnoticed relationships within the data.. Data profiling in this
context is the process of assembling information about a
particular individual or group in order to generate a profile —
that is, a picture of their patterns and behavior. Data
profiling can be an extremely powerful tool for psychological
and social network analysis. A skilled analyst can discover
facts about a person that they might not even be consciously
aware of themselves.
Economic (such as credit card purchases) and social (such as
telephone calls and emails) transactions in modern society
create large amounts of stored data and records. In the past,
this data was documented in paper records, leaving a "paper
trail", or was simply not documented at all. Correlation of
paper-based records was a laborious process—it required human
intelligence operators to manually dig through documents, which
was time-consuming and incomplete, at best.
But today many of these records are electronic, resulting in an
"electronic trail". Every use of a bank machine, payment by
credit card, use of a phone card, call from home, checked out
library book, rented video, or otherwise complete recorded
transaction generates an electronic record. Public records—such
as birth, court, tax and other records—are increasingly being
digitized and made available online. In addition, due to laws
like CALEA, web traffic and online purchases are also available
for profiling. Electronic record-keeping makes data easily
collectable, storable, and accessible—so that high-volume,
efficient aggregation and analysis is possible at significantly
Information relating to many of these individual transactions is
often easily available because it is generally not guarded in
isolation, since the information, such as the title of a movie a
person has rented, might not seem sensitive. However, when many
such transactions are aggregated they can be used to assemble a
detailed profile revealing the actions, habits, beliefs,
locations frequented, social connections, and preferences of the
individual. This profile is then used, by programs such as
ADVISE and TALON, to determine whether the person is a military,
criminal, or political threat.
In addition to its own aggregation and profiling tools, the
government is able to access information from third parties —
for example, banks, credit companies or employers, etc. — by
requesting access informally, by compelling access through the
use of subpoenas or other procedures, or by purchasing data from
commercial data aggregators or data brokers. The United States
has spent $370 million on its 43 planned fusion centers, which
are national network of surveillance centers that are located in
over 30 states. The centers will collect and analyze vast
amounts of data on U.S. citizens. It will get this data by
consolidating personal information from sources such as state
driver's licensing agencies, hospital records, criminal records,
school records, credit bureaus, banks, etc. -- and placing this
information in a centralized database that can be accessed from
all of the centers, as well as other federal law enforcement and
Under United States v. Miller (1976), data held by third parties
is generally not subject to Fourth Amendment warrant
Corporate surveillance is the monitoring of a
person or group's behavior by a corporation. The data collected
is most often used for marketing purposes or sold to other
corporations, but is also regularly shared with government
agencies. It can be used as a form of business intelligence,
which enables the corporation to better tailor their products
and/or services to be desirable by their customers. Or the data
can be sold to other corporations, so that they can use it for
the aforementioned purpose. Or it can be used for direct
marketing purposes, such as the targeted advertisements on
Google and Yahoo, where ads are targeted to the user of the
search engine by analyzing their search history and emails (if
they use free webmail services), which is kept in a database.
For instance, Google, the world's most popular search engine,
stores identifying information for each web search. An IP
address and the search phrase used are stored in a database for
up to 18 months. Google also scans the content of emails of
users of its Gmail webmail service, in order to create targeted
advertising based on what people are talking about in their
personal email correspondences. Google is, by far, the largest
Internet advertising agency—millions of sites place Google's
advertising banners and links on their websites, in order to
earn money from visitors who click on the ads. Each page
containing Google advertisements adds, reads, and modifies
"cookies" on each visitor's computer. These cookies track the
user across all of these sites, and gather information about
their web surfing habits, keeping track of which sites they
visit, and what they do when they are on these sites. This
information, along with the information from their email
accounts, and search engine histories, is stored by Google to
use for building a profile of the user to deliver
According to the American Management Association and the ePolicy
Institute that undertake an annual quantitative survey about
electronic monitoring and surveillance with approximately 300
U.S. companies, “more than one fourth of employers have fired
workers for misusing e-mail and nearly one third have fired
employees for misusing the Internet“. More than 40% of the
companies monitor e-mail traffic of their workers, and 66% of
corporations monitor Internet connections. In addition, most
companies use software to block non-work related websites such
as sexual or pornographic sites, game sites, social networking
sites, entertainment sites, shopping sites, and sport sites. The
American Management Association and the ePolicy Institute also
stress that companies “tracking content, keystrokes, and time
spent at the keyboard ... store and review computer files ...
monitor the blogosphere to see what is being written about the
company, and ... monitor social networking sites“. Furthermore,
about 30% of the companies had also fired employees for non-work
related email and Internet usage such as “inappropriate or
offensive language“ and ”viewing, downloading, or uploading
The United States government often gains access to these
databases, either by producing a warrant for it, or by simply
asking. The Department of Homeland Security has openly stated
that it uses data collected from consumer credit and direct
marketing agencies—such as Google—for augmenting the profiles of
individuals whom it is monitoring. The FBI, Department of
Homeland Security, and other intelligence agencies have formed
an "information-sharing" partnership with over 34,000
corporations as part of their Infragard program.
The U.S. Federal government has gathered information from
grocery store "discount card" programs, which track customers'
shopping patterns and store them in databases, in order to look
for "terrorists" by analyzing shoppers' buying patterns.
Organizations that have enemies who wish to
gather information about the groups' members or activities face
the issue of infiltration.
In addition to operatives' infiltrating an organization, the
surveilling party may exert pressure on certain members of the
target organization to act as informants (i.e., to disclose the
information they hold on the organization and its members).
Fielding operatives is very expensive, and for governments with
wide-reaching electronic surveillance tools at their disposal
the information recovered from operatives can often be obtained
from less problematic forms of surveillance such as those
mentioned above. Nevertheless, human infiltrators are still
common today. For instance, in 2007 documents surfaced showing
that the FBI was planning to field a total of 15,000 undercover
agents and informants in response to an anti-terrorism directive
sent out by George W. Bush in 2004 that ordered intelligence and
law enforcement agencies to increase their HUMINT capabilities.
On May 25, 2007 the U.S. Director of National
Intelligence Michael McConnell authorized the National
Applications Office (NAO) of the Department of Homeland Security
to allow local, state, and domestic Federal agencies to access
imagery from military intelligence satellites and aircraft
sensors which can now be used to observe the activities of U.S.
citizens. The satellites and aircraft sensors will be able to
penetrate cloud cover, detect chemical traces, and identify
objects in buildings and "underground bunkers", and will provide
real-time video at much higher resolutions than the still-images
produced by programs such as Google Earth.
Identification and Credentials
A card containing an identification number is
one of the simplest forms of identification is the carrying of
credentials. Some nations have an identity card system to aid
identification, whilst many, such as Britain, are considering it
but face public opposition. Other documents, such as passports,
driver's licenses, library cards, banking or credit cards are
also used to verify identity.
If the form of the identity card is "machine-readable", usually
using an encoded magnetic stripe or identification number (such
as a Social Security number), it corroborates the subject's
identifying data. In this case it may create an electronic trail
when it is checked and scanned, which can be used in profiling,
as mentioned above.
RFID and Geolocation
the late 80's, I met a gentleman at a Hotel one evening who was
in town for convention being held at a University. According to
the him, he was a vendor who was introducing the "Smart Card"
to the university to use on campus. So, I got him
drunk and he sang like a bird. He told me that the card
was so sophisticated that a parent could give the "Smart Card"
to their son/daughter attending the University that they would
have, to a degree, control over how the money was spent.
For example, he told me that a parent could give the child a
"Smart Card" with a $1,000 to be used in the following
Unlimited $$$$ for Books and School Supplies
$XXXX per month for Meals
$XXXX per month for Laundry
$XXXX per month for Entertainment
$XXXX per month Vending Machines
$XXXX per month Misc. etc.
In other words, the child could not "Rob
Peter to Pay Paul" and use money food money to buy booze or
from one allocation to another.
Naturally, the more he sang, the more I became
interested and pressed for information. In the end, he
went to his hotel and brought me back the literature he would be
handing out, along with the a "Smart Card" with the printing
I asked him if I could attend the convention and
he said, "Not unless you are on the attendee list".
I went back to my room and read the information.
And, realized just how smart the "Smart Card" was. What I
found most interesting was the
inside the card. Since I had many questions for him after
reading the information, I call a friend of mine who was a
professor of like mind and spirit at U.C.L.A. and told him about
evening. He arranged to get us on the attendee list and off we
went. During our meeting with the gentleman behind the
"Smart Card", I asked him the following question:
"I read your information and found the
RFID technology to be very interesting. Does that mean if
I have a smart card on me, they can locate me where ever I go,
by simply entering my "Number"?
He replied: "I can't answer the question."
So, I asked him: "You can't or you
won't answer the question?"
He responded with a smile "I won't answer
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tagging is
the use of very small electronic devices (called "RFID tags")
which are applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or
person for the purpose of identification and tracking using
radio waves. The tags can be read from several meters away. They
are extremely inexpensive, costing a few cents per piece, so
they can be inserted into many types of everyday products
without significantly increasing the price, and can be used to
track and identify these objects for a variety of purposes.
Many companies are already "tagging" their workers, who are
monitored while on the job. Workers in U.K. went on general
strike in protest of having themselves tagged. They felt that it
was dehumanizing to have all of their movements tracked with
RFID chips. Some critics have expressed fears that people will
soon be tracked and scanned everywhere they go.
RFID chip pulled from new credit card Verichip is an RFID device
produced by a company called Applied Digital Solutions (ADS).
Verichip is slightly larger than a grain of rice, and is
injected under the skin. The injection reportedly feels similar
to receiving a shot. The chip is encased in glass, and stores a
"VeriChip Subscriber Number" which the scanner uses to access
their personal information, via the Internet, from Verichip
Inc.'s database, the "Global VeriChip Subscriber Registry".
Thousands of people have already had them inserted. In Mexico,
for example, 160 workers at the Attorney General's office were
required to have the chip injected for identity verification and
access control purposes.
In a 2003 editorial, CNET News.com's chief political
correspondent, Declan McCullagh, speculated that, soon, every
object that is purchased, and perhaps ID cards, will have RFID
devices in them, which would respond with information about
people as they walk past scanners (what type of phone they have,
what type of shoes they have on, which books they are carrying,
what credit cards or membership cards they have, etc.). This
information could be used for identification, tracking, or
targeted marketing. As of 2012, this has largely not come to
They have been able to track us for
Decades!!!!!!!!! Our every purchase, every transaction, medical
information, and "YOUR LOCATION" can be found in the
blink of an eye.
In the U.S., police have planted hidden GPS
tracking devices in people's vehicles to monitor their
movements, without a warrant. In early 2009, they were arguing
in court that they have the right to do this.
Several cities are running pilot projects to require parolees to
wear GPS devices to track their movements when they get out of
Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect
geolocation data. The geographical location of a mobile phone
(and thus the person carrying it) can be determined easily
(whether it is being used or not), using a technique known
multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a
signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell
towers near the owner of the phone.
Surveillance devices, or "bugs", are hidden
electronic devices which are used to capture, record, and/or
transmit data to a receiving party such as a law enforcement
The U.S. has run numerous domestic intelligence, such as
COINTELPRO, which have bugged the homes, offices, and vehicles
of thousands of U.S. citizens, usually political activists,
subversives, and criminals.
Law enforcement and intelligence services in the U.K. and the
United States possess technology to remotely activate the
microphones in cell phones, by accessing the phone's
diagnostic/maintenance features, in order to listen to
conversations that take place nearby the person who holds the
As more people use faxes and e-mail the
significance of surveilling the postal system is decreasing, in
favor of Internet and telephone surveillance. But interception
of post is still an available option for law enforcement and
intelligence agencies, in certain circumstances.
The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and Federal Bureau of
Investigation have performed twelve separate mail-opening
campaigns targeted towards U.S. citizens. In one of these
programs, more than 215,000 communications were intercepted,
opened, and photographed.
An elaborate graffito in Columbus, Ohio,
depicting nation-state surveillance of telecommunications
Some critics state that the claim made by
supporters should be modified to read: "As long as we do what
we're told, we have nothing to fear.". For instance, a person
who is part of a political group which opposes the policies of
the national government, might not want the government to know
their names and what they have been reading, so that the
government cannot easily subvert their organization, arrest, or
kill them. Other critics state that while a person might not
have anything to hide right now, the government might later
implement policies that they do wish to oppose, and that
opposition might then be impossible due to mass surveillance
enabling the government to identify and remove political
threats. Further, other critics point to the fact that most
people do have things to hide. For example, if a person is
looking for a new job, they might not want their current
employer to know this.
In addition, a significant risk of private data collection stems
from the fact that this risk is too much unknown to be readily
assessed today. Storage is cheap enough to have data stored
forever, and the models using which it will be analyzed in a
decade from now cannot reasonably be foreseen.
Programs such as the Total Information Awareness
program, and laws such as the Communications Assistance For Law
Enforcement Act have led many groups to fear that society is
moving towards a state of mass surveillance with severely
limited personal, social, political freedoms, where dissenting
individuals or groups will be strategically removed in
Kate Martin, of the Center For National Security Studies said of
the use of military spy satellites being used to monitor the
activities of U.S. citizens: "They are laying the bricks one at
a time for a police state."
Some point to the blurring of lines between public and private
places, and the privatization of places traditionally seen as
public (such as shopping malls and industrial parks) as
illustrating the increasing legality of collecting personal
information. Traveling through many public places such as
government offices is hardly optional for most people, yet
consumers have little choice but to submit to companies'
surveillance practices. Surveillance techniques are not created
equal; among the many biometric identification technologies, for
instance, face recognition requires the least cooperation.
Unlike automatic fingerprint reading, which requires an
individual to press a finger against a machine, this technique
is subtle and requires little to no consent.
Some critics, such as Michel Foucault, believe
that in addition to its obvious function of identifying and
capturing individuals who are committing undesirable acts,
surveillance also functions to create in everyone a feeling of
always being watched, so that they become self-policing. This
allows the State to control the populace without having to
resort to physical force, which is expensive and otherwise
Numerous civil rights groups and privacy groups
oppose surveillance as a violation of people's right to privacy.
Such groups include: Electronic Privacy Information Center,
Electronic Frontier Foundation, American Civil Liberties Union
There have been several lawsuits such as Hepting v. AT&T and
EPIC v. Department of Justice by groups or individuals, opposing
certain surveillance activities.
Legislative proceedings such as those that took place during the
Church Committee, which investigated domestic intelligence
programs such as COINTELPRO, have also weighed the pros and cons
Counter-Surveillance, Inverse Surveillance, Sousveillance
Counter surveillance is the practice of avoiding
surveillance or making surveillance difficult. Developments in
the late twentieth century have caused counter surveillance to
dramatically grow in both scope and complexity, such as the
Internet, increasing prevalence of electronic security systems,
high-altitude (and possibly armed) UAVs, and large corporate and
government computer databases.
Inverse surveillance is the practice of the reversal of
surveillance on other individuals or groups (e.g., citizens
photographing police, although this is more of a political
reference, as some groups specifically aim to harass police and
retaliate for their own criminal pasts, as well as ongoing
criminal activity, such as was the case with regard to Rodney
King's continual illegal activities. This was confirmed upon his
death when authorities recorded ongoing illegal drug and alcohol
use. Well-known examples are George Holliday's recording of the
Rodney King beating and the organization Copwatch, which
attempts to monitor police officers to prevent police brutality
or for other nefarious uses as blackmailing. It is well known
that certain criminal rights groups seek to use counter-methods
in efforts to deter detection of criminal activities, as was the
case with Rodney King's historical criminal record, and the
intentional set up to use counter-surveillance as a form of
entrapment to record police tactics to combat crimes.
Counter-surveillance can be also used in applications to prevent
corporate spying, or to track other criminals by certain
criminal entities. It can also be used to deter stalking methods
used by various entities and organizations.
Sousveillance is inverse surveillance, involving the recording
by private individuals, rather than government or corporate
Get Ready For A Revolution!
Camp FEMA is an excellent documentary which exposes the
sinister and covert operations of FEMA and the Dept. of Homeland
Security working in conjunction the executive branch of our
government through something called Continuity of Government,
are secretly readying internment/prison camps which has been
coined FEMA CAMPS. The corrupt mega news media and politicians
do not like to admit this in operation, but their actions ,and
the evidence, shows differently.
and Fascism Symbols
Is the USA a
"The Germans lost the war, but fascism won it!" (George Carlin)
Is the US a fascistic state? Have a look, you'll be surprised! The USA
is using the symbol of fascism officially in the chamber of the United States Senate, and on other
important places of the nation. Have a look and ask
yourself why the US is using symbols of fascism officially in the
past and in the present!!! You´ll find this symbol even on
statues and memorials from George Washington and Abraham Lincoln.
Your guardsmen are like the swarming locust . . . and the angels shall come forth and gather the wicked from amongst the righteous . . . And they will be gathered like prisoners in a dungeon, and will be confined in prison; and after many days they will be punished . . . For Tophet has long been ready. Indeed it has been prepared for the King and his followers.
Presidential Executive Orders - FEMA Camps -
9/11 Exposed - Operation Northwoods - Martial Law -
The Patriot Act -
New World Order -
The Money-Changers - None
Dare Call It Conspiracy -
Proofs of a Conspiracy -
The Hegelian Principle - The Master Plan - Petition & Mandamus - When All Else Fails
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the
wireless non-contact use of radio-frequency electromagnetic
fields to transfer data, for the purposes of automatically
identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. The tags
contain electronically stored information. Some tags are powered
by and read at short ranges (a few meters) via magnetic fields
(electromagnetic induction). Others use a local power source
such as a battery, or else have no battery but collect energy
from the interrogating EM field, and then act as a passive
transponder to emit microwaves or UHF radio waves (i.e.,
electromagnetic radiation at high frequencies). Battery powered
tags may operate at hundreds of meters. Unlike a bar code, the
tag does not necessarily need to be within line of sight of the
reader, and may be embedded in the tracked object.
RFID tags are used in many industries. An RFID tag attached to
an automobile during production can be used to track its
progress through the assembly line. Pharmaceuticals can be
tracked through warehouses. Livestock and pets may have tags
injected, allowing positive identification of the animal. On
off-shore oil and gas platforms, RFID tags are worn by personnel
as a safety measure, allowing them to be located 24 hours a day
and to be quickly found in emergencies.
Since RFID tags can be attached to clothing, possessions, or
even implanted within people, the possibility of reading
personally-linked information without consent has raised privacy
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